main

FASHION HISTORYhistory

Canonical beauty: Prehistory

11.07.2017 — by Victoria Ventonni

0-e1499793366154-960x456.jpg

Trying to look like someone else or desire to empathize certain aspects of the person’s own body in order to be beautiful is not a modern trend. In fact, it is a very old partly psychological phenomenon. Beauty canons are often regarded as a direct consequence of the K-strategy* working. However, I would like to argue against this point of view, which has a lot of oversimplification in it.

Indeed, K-strategy has a lot to do with definition of beauty, subconsciously preventing humanity from both the overpopulation and dying out. Other factors of main importance are habitat and the leader, his taste in women if this leader is a man. Moreover, a bright personality should be taken into account, too, as the desire to be like someone mentally and sociologically reflects on the first place in the change of the style and appearance.

Beauty standards are constantly changing, differing in various societies even in a modern globalized world. We shall start with an attempt to define canonical beauty in prehistory era.

Most of art objects left from this time represent animals. In prehistorical society the study of the anatomical structure of an animal was of vital importance as the good knowledge of it could not only save life of the hunter, but also bring some food to home. The inclusion of the image of a human is quite rare, with the exception of the female imagery. All of such females are called “Venuses”.

1

Vénus de Laussel – example of female in the relief

2

Venus von Willendorf – example of female in sculpture

3

Venus of Dolní Věstonice – example of female in ceramics

The faces of all of them do not matter, the artist’s attention is focused on their bodies, highlighting their fertility through empathizing primary and secondary sexual characteristics. The woman was, first of all, a mother, who should have made good and healthy numerous progeny and breed them until the age of maturing. These functions were accentuated by the artist and taken into account when choosing a partner by men. Moreover, these images probably had the sacral meaning, promising praising people abundant harvest and comfortable existence with enough food and less death.

Nevertheless, even at these hard for survival of the humankind times beauty canons were not the same around the globe. In Siberia, where the climate is much harsher than in Europe, where the most of curvy Venuses were found, were discovered totally different statuettes.

4

Venus of Buret

Very tall and thin, probably wearing fur, without breasts, but with outlined facial features – that’s how typical (or perfect) woman looked like for our ancestors who lived there. According to the K-strategy, the imagery should have been quite the opposite as survival in northern territories was very hard and men probably needed the emphasized fertile women to make offspring and live long enough to raise it.

Even then the beauty canons varied depending on public foundations and presumably many other things about which we have no idea.

5

 


*To discover more about K-strategy search r/K selection theory or  click here

freshhistoryNEWS

In a memory of Ilya Glazunov

11.07.2017 — by VD

glazunov120-tile-960x732.jpg

In a memory of Ilya Glazunov.

In a memory of Ilya Glazunov our team wants to share with you our favorite masterpieces of the great Russian painter. He was one from thousands. He was never afraid of the government and his life was very hard. He showed his emotions and feelings trough his paintings. Each of them touches hearts. We do not have a lot of words to say, how important this person is to the Russian culture. In a memory of Ilya Glazunov, the great inspiration and a free soul.

glazunov36
Central portion of the Triptych.
1983. Oil on canvas. 123 х 200.
Triptych Legend of the Grand Inquisitor.
Illustrations for F. Dostoyevsky’s novel
“The Brothers Karamazov.”

glazunov120

Our St.-Petersburg. Memories of the Wife.
1994. Oil on canvas.

glazunov29

Ilya Glazunov. In a collective-farm warehouse.
1986. Oil on canvas.

glazunov203

Ilya Glazunov. Farewell.
1986. Oil on canvas. 270×480.

glazunov22

Ilya Glazunov. The Market of our Democracy.
1999. Oil on canvas. 300 х 600.

glazunov60

lya Glazunov. Wave.
1987.

_______-_-_________

Christ and Antichrist  

1999 year

Oil on canvas, acrylic. 112,5×139,5

city_005

Hunchback  

1966 year

Oil on canvas. 149×99

_------.-------_------.-60-_90.-____-__._________.

Bedroom  

1982 year

Set design for ballet of A. Khachaturian “Masquerade”
Oil on cardboard. 60×90

FASHION HISTORYhistory

The other side of Romanticism

08.06.2017 — by Victoria Ventonni

Jean_Auguste_Dominique_Ingres_La_Grande_Odalisque_1814-960x535.jpg

We are used to think that French Romanticism is mostly based on the appraisal of antique motives and aesthetics. It is true, but not the whole of it, by the way. Another great source of inspiration were oriental ideas and elements, dreaming about them. This essay focuses on oriental motives in oeuvre of two very well-known romanticism painters: Ingres and Delacroix.

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres is considered by some amount of art historians to be a neoclassicist. However, I would argue with that. First of all, classical motives were not his only source of inspiration, they were more like a basis of his style, partly subconscious, derived from years of studying in academic way. Secondly, the ease with which he alters the proportions of human body, the variety of epochs and cultures which he transforms in his paintings point out some significant distance between him, Academy and neoclassicism. Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres created paintings based on mythology for Academy, portraits in order to earn money and a great deal of the art left was inspired by oriental motives, includes them (at least, in the beginning). The interesting fact is that the painter himself had never been to Middle or Far East, all he had were stories about travelling there (documentary or fictional), little objects that were brought from there and, of course, a great deal of his own imagination.

The illustrative example for that may be The Grande Odalisque created by Ingres in 1814. The painter creates quite typical late-Renaissance composition and figure, enriching them by insertion of little oriental details. The woman herself has a European kind of beauty changed by elongation of her back and neck, creating the appealing sense of eastern mystery. The viewer feels that something is wrong but he cannot stop admiring this woman, her intriguing beauty, trying to solve the mystery.

Jean_Auguste_Dominique_Ingres,_La_Grande_Odalisque,_1814
The latter example, which I would like to present here, is Odalisque with slave, finished in 1842. Clearly, the Ingres’s connoisseurship of eastern cultures has broadened, which results in the amount of objects included. Nevertheless, the basis remains the same: the figure and posture of odalisque is quite similar with women on Venetian Late Renaissance paintings. Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres strives to learn more about the culture that fascinates him. He creates a very interesting mix of carefully copied eastern details, professional academic training and his own imagination.

Jean-Paul_Flandrin_-_Odalisque_with_Slave

Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix is often opposed to Ingres (even in Wikipedia), but they have a lot of common. Both of them were highly influenced by both Venetian Late Renaissance paintings and oriental motives. They both changed classical canons of interpretation, each one on his own way. The greatest difference between them within the topic of this essay is that Delacroix actually did visit Eastern countries and had the opportunity to base the works on the memories and experience of his own. His early oriental works, such as Woman with a parrot (1827), resemble those of Ingres, lacking his intrigue and sensuality. The eroticism in early Delacroix works is more open and visible. For the painter the oriental details are more like an external frame of naked woman and her beauty.

Delacroix,_Eugène_Ferdinand_Victor_-_Woman_with_a_Parrot_-_1827
Women of Algiers painted in 1834 were influenced by the personal experience the painter had in eastern countries. Of course, there was no possibility for him to see the harem inside, but the painter observed the type oriental beauty, depicting it in women. He also inserted more details, which show his connoisseurship of eastern world, its habits, culture and style.

Women_of_algiers_1834
As we can see, oriental motives are an important part of the Romanticism paintings. The East lured dreamers by its mystery, another culture, style of life and mind, producing a great deal of art objects inspired by it.

WANNA GET UPDATES?

Subscribe to our mailing list and get interesting stuff and updates to your email inbox.